Grammar of Nepali Language

Singular and plural in Nepali


The plural of nouns is done by adding the suffix "- haru" end of word. The adjectives do not mark the plural in the spoken language. On the other hand, in the written language, the adjectives change their endings "-a" to mark the plural character. Also note that in Nepal, the plural marker is omitted when:


· The plural nature of the word is clear (eg: when a number or words as "many, much, very")


· When the plural character refers to a generality (eg I love traveling in THE MOUNTAINS)


When the suffix « - haru » is affixed to a noun that can not be effective, it implies the idea of « and that sort of thing ». Thus the word "bhat - rice" may be called "bhatharu - rice and anything else to eat"


It is also possible to add the suffix « -haru » to proper names. In such a case, it implies the idea of "and his family." Ex: "ranjit - Ranjit" becomes "ranjitharu - Ranjit and all the other".


Regarding verbs, conjugation has endings evoking the plural nature of the action. For example, if the verb "chha" becomes "chhan" and « ho » becomes « hun ».


The plural mark - hāru (हरू):” the plural is formed by using the suffix “hāru -x?_. As such, “kitaab (किताब) – book” (singular) becomes “kitaabhāru (किताबहरू)- the books” (plural). The plural mark is always placed between the word (also called substantive) and the postposition, if there is one. If we want to add the postposition “-maa” meaning “in, on” we will say “kitaabhāru-maa कितावहरूमा in the books.” It should be noted that the plural for non-human terms (books, jobs, shops etc.) will be translated as singular in Nepalese if they express something general (e.g. “I love books – mālaï kitaab mān pārchā dnfO{ lstfa dgk5{”) or if they are preceded by a number or word which shows the plural of the substantive (e.g., “I have three brothers – mero tin bhaï-daï chhā मेरो तीनजना भाइ-दाइ छ”).



a) raajaa राजा king                             raajaahāru राजाहरू kings

b) maanche मान्छे person                   maanchehāru मान्छेहरू           persons

c) kitaab किताब    book                         kitaabhāru किताबहरू             books

d) pāsāl पसल shop                              pāsālhāru पसलहरू                  shops

e) bhāïsi भैँसी buffalo                          bhāïsihāru भैँसीहरू                   buffalos

f) jholaa झोलाsuitcase                         jholaahāru झोलाहरू                 suitcases

g) chhāraa चरा bird                            chhāraahāru चराहरू                birds

h) des देश country                                deshāru देशहरू                           countries

i) gaaũ गाँउ village                              gaaũhāru गाउँहरू                      villages

j) shāhār शहर city                               shāhārhāru शहरहरू                 cities



Also note that the words “tyo – this” and “yo – that” become “yi” and “tyi in their plural forms. We also remind that the adjectives never use the plural mark.

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